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HOW CBD WORKS

CBD · Cannabidiol
CBD is a non-intoxicating cannabinoid extracted from the Cannabis plant. Both marijuana and hemp plants are Cannabis and both contain CBD.

Unlike tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)—the other primary and most known cannabinoid in cannabis—CBD doesn’t alter your mind or cause a psychoactive reaction. In other words, using CBD without THC won’t get you high.

How CBD works in the body
Your body is made up of different systems, each responsible for different bodily functions. One of these systems is called your Endocannabinoid System (ECS). The Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is a collection of cell receptors and molecules located throughout the entire body. These receptors bind to molecules called Endocannabinoids naturally produced in the human body. An optimally functioning ECS creates endocannabinoids based on the demand and needs of the body to ensure harmony and balance in cells, tissues, and organs – known as homeostasis.

Cannabinoids produced by the cannabis plant referred to as phytocannabinoids, simply imitate endocannabinoids and interact with the body the same way as the endocannabinoids it naturally produces. Cannabinoids fit perfectly into the cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), serving to improve and enhance the body’s own ability to maintain homeostasis (balance) and health.

CB1 Receptors – The cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors are mostly found on nerve cells in the brain, spinal cord, and other organs.

CB2 Receptors – The cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptors are found in our reproductive organs, immune system, and peripheral nervous system.

CB1 Receptors Target:

  • Response to anxiety, stress, emotion, fear, and pain.
  • Motor activity and coordination
  • Thinking
  • Appetite
  • Learning & Memory system
  • Decision making
  • Emotional behavior
  • Body temperature
  • Neuroendocrine function
  • Language
  • Pain perception
  • Immune cells
  • Sleeping patterns

 

CB2 Receptors Target:

  • Bones & eyes
  • Energy balance
  • Metabolism
  • Gut and digestion
  • Inflammation
  • Respiratory tract
  • Skeletal muscle
  • Kidneys, Liver & Pancreas
  • Reproductive System
  • Cardiovascular function
  • Central nervous system
  • Immune system responses
  • Skin and nerve function
  • Muscle formation
  • Adipose tissue (fat)

How the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) works
Our ECS is responsible for maintaining homeostasis (balance) over all other systems (digestive, endocrine, neural, lymphatic, immune, etc.) and bring them back to a neutral state whether they were over-stimulated or under-stimulated.

Overactive Immune System · Asthma, allergies, dermatitis, eczema, autoimmune disorders – multiple sclerosis, autoimmune thyroid disease, type 1 diabetes, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic vasculitis or digestive issues like inflammatory bowel disease.

Underactive Immune System · Makes people vulnerable to bacteria and infections.

Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency (CECD)
Due to lack of nutrition, stress, age, etc., the body produces fewer endocannabinoids resulting in ECS dysfunction which can contribute to the development of certain health complications and diseases. When the body is ill, there will be a lack of those endocannabinoids and the body starts to experience symptoms ranging from anxiety and insomnia to pain and spasms. That is where CBD steps in. As a result, CBD can help you sleep, ease pain symptoms, and more.

Inflammation is the body’s natural response to fighting illness, injury, or invaders. Too much inflammation, however, can cause: Asthma, Obesity, Cancer, Heart disease, Rheumatoid arthritis, Neurodegenerative diseases (like Alzheimer’s), Type 2 diabetes. CBD might help reduce your risk of developing the conditions mentioned above.

Are there any side effects of using CBD?
Research has concluded that CBD is perfectly safe with no known side effects, though some users have reported drowsiness, low blood pressure, light-headedness, and dry mouth.

Is CBD addictive?
While nearly anything in the world can be addictive, CBD is not known to be an addictive drug. CBD has shown strong potential to be a useful tool to help people break addictions to harmful substances.

Withdrawal from CBD oil?
As far as the research goes, there is no evidence of CBD withdrawal symptoms or reported issues with tolerance, addiction, or subsequent withdrawals from CBD.

Does CBD interact with other medications?
CBD is metabolized by a group of enzymes called the CYP450, also responsible for metabolizing many commonly used drugs. CBD can temporarily inhibit the activity of the CYP450 enzymes. Compounds in grapefruit inhibit the same enzyme group, which is why a physician advises patients not to eat grapefruit shortly before or after taking medication. While CBD-drug interactions are more likely with high doses of CBD, precaution must be taken when using CBD alongside life-preserving medications for serious conditions (i.e. epilepsy medications).

Always consult your physician as they can help you decide whether it’s safe to consume CBD based on each person’s medical history and current prescriptions.

Can you overdose on CBD?
CBD has been shown to be safe to use in high doses. CBD will not cause a fatal overdose. However, it is possible to take too much CBD. A consequence of taking too much CBD is the increased chance of negative side effects like lethargy or drowsiness and can also cause anxiety.

Is CBD Psychoactive?
CBD will not make you High. THC—another cannabinoid found in the cannabis plant is the cannabinoid that presents the psychoactive effects. So, unlike CBD, products with a significant concentration of THC will produce the psychoactive effect or the cerebral high.

CBD products made from the hemp plant will contain less than 0.3% THC. Those products will help manage the symptoms without producing the “high”, associated with cannabis and THC.

CBD products made from the hemp plant will contain less than 0.3% THC.

THC · Tetrahydrocannabinol
The primary psychoactive cannabinoid in cannabis that stimulates chemical receptors in the brain responsible for mood, appetite, memory, pain sensations, and psychoactive perception. THC is the cannabinoid responsible for the “high” and is potentially beneficial for pain relief, nausea, and appetite stimulation. The cannabis plant uses THC to fend off natural predators like parasites, bacteria, and viruses.

Effects of THC overdose • Altered senses (for example, seeing brighter colours), altered sense of time, changes in mood, impaired body movement, difficulty with thinking and problem-solving, impaired memory, hallucinations (when taken in high doses), delusions (when taken in high doses), psychosis (risk is highest with regular use of high potency marijuana). On average, the effects last about two hours and kick in 10 to 40 minutes after ingestion.

Hemp vs Marijuana
Hemp and marijuana are both classified biologically as cannabis. Legally, hemp is defined as a cannabis plant that contains 0.3 percent or less THC, while marijuana is a cannabis plant that contains more than 0.3 percent THC. CBD can be derived from both hemp and marijuana plants. Marijuana-derived CBD products, or CBD products that contain THC, may be more effective than hemp-derived CBD products.

THE CANNABIS PLANT BREAKDOWN 

CANNABINOIDS
Cannabidiol (CBD) and Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are only two of 100+ phytochemical compounds in the Cannabis plant called Cannabinoids. All 100+ cannabinoids are unique compounds with different properties.

Cannabinoids work by imitating compounds that our bodies naturally produce, called endocannabinoids that maintain internal balance and health.

Phytocannabinoids – “Phyto” means “plant” – natural chemical compounds secreted by cannabis flowers – CBD, THC, etc.

Endocannabinoids – “endo” means “endogenous” – are naturally produced by the human body.

Endocannabinoids are cannabis-like molecules naturally produced in the human body that regulates the proper functioning of the immune system and nervous system. Cannabinoids contained in cannabis referred to as phytocannabinoids, simply imitate endocannabinoids. Cannabinoids fit perfectly into specialized receptors (CB1 and CB2) found throughout the nervous and immune systems, serving to enhance, or improve upon, the body’s own ability to maintain homeostasis (balance) and health.

Phytocannabinoids have 2 categories, ACIDIC and NEUTRAL.

Acidic • The plant is only able to produce the phytocannabinoids directly in their non-psychoactive forms (Acidic). Therefore, the main phytocannabinoids present in fresh plant material are Δ9-THCA, CBDA, CBGA y CBCA.

Neutral • When the plant is smoked or cooked every acidic cannabinoid is decarboxylated (transformed) to its neutral form due to the influence of heat, light, or drying. – Δ9-THC, CBD, CBG y CBC

OTHER CANNABINOIDS
Cannabigerol (CBG) • appetite stimulant, inflammation, depression, anxiety, anti-fungal.
Cannabichromene (CBC) • inflammation, depression, anxiety, anti-pathogenic.
Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) • appetite suppression, inflammation, anticonvulsant.
Cannabidivarin (CBDV) • anticonvulsant.
Cannabinol (CBN) • sedative, cancer cell growth suppressant.

TRICHOMES
Trichomes are shiny, sticky, mushroom-shaped, clear, or white-looking crystals that cover the leaves and buds producing Cannabinoids and Terpenes. CBD is mostly produced in the resinous trichomes of cannabis flowers. Smaller concentrations of CBD can be found on the stalk and leaves of cannabis plants.

TERPENES
Responsible for the unique aroma of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and herbs. Plants develop terpenes to ward off herbivores that might eat them and to attract helpful predators and pollinators. Terpenes also provide therapeutic properties like cannabinoids and alter their surroundings to modify how much of each cannabinoid is absorbed.

Terpenes and Cannabinoids work together in harmony to result in an “Entourage Effect” which enhances their individual therapeutic properties.

Bioflavonoids (“Vitamin P”)
Bioflavonoids (also called flavonoids) are the natural pigments that give fruits and vegetables and flowers their colour.

Terpenes = Smell
Bioflavonoids = Colour

DIFFERENT TYPES OF CBD PRODUCTS
• CBD Isolate Products
• Broad Spectrum CBD Products
• Full Spectrum CBD Products

CBD ISOLATE
CBD isolate is a crystalline solid or powder that contains 99% pure CBD. A traditional extraction process removes all the active compounds from the cannabis plant, followed by a refinement process that strips away all other phytocannabinoids, including THC, and any plant matter, leaving behind nothing but the CBD chemical compound in its purest form.

It is different from full-spectrum CBD products, which can legally contain up to 0.3% THC. This amount may show up on a drug test, but it will not cause a high. Studies show that CBD works best when accompanied by the full range of cannabis plant constituents (cannabinoids and terpenes) and works most effectively together.

BROAD-SPECTRUM 
Broad Spectrum CBD products contain an array of beneficial cannabinoids and terpenes, but zero THC. To create Broad Spectrum CBD, the cannabis plant must undergo additional processing to remove as many trace amounts of THC as possible while still preserving the rest of the plant constituents (cannabinoids and terpenes).

FULL-SPECTRUM
Full Spectrum refers to an extract created from the entire plant, without any filtering of THC. The full range of cannabinoids, terpenes, and other compounds remain intact, as well as THC.

WHY WE RECOMMEND BROAD-SPECTRUM OR FULL-SPECTRUM RATHER THAN ISOLATED PRODUCTS.

The Entourage Effect
Each cannabinoid and terpene have its own set of therapeutic benefits. However, when multiple cannabinoids, terpenes, and other whole plant compounds are consumed, they enhance each other’s effects. In this way, cannabinoids are more effective together than they are alone.

THC’s Entourage
THC, the psychoactive compound in cannabis is potentially beneficial for pain, nausea, and muscle spasms, but comes with some downsides: it can increase anxiety, affect memory, and might even lead to atrophy in the brain’s hippocampus.

Entourage – When scientists use whole-plant products with higher CBD content, the positive effects are stronger and the negative side effects decrease or even reverse. Full-spectrum extracts are more effective at fighting cancer cells than THC or CBD alone, and the anxiety induced by THC is reduced by CBD and other cannabinoids.

CBD’s Entourage
CBD has anti-inflammatory and anti-anxiety properties, but CBD isolate also comes with its downsides:

CBD isolate relieves anxiety at moderate doses but might trigger anxiety-inducing neurotransmitters at high doses and the bell-shaped response curve – Its effectiveness peaks at a medium dose but tapers off for higher doses AND lower doses.

Entourage – When CBD is combined with a full-spectrum or broad-spectrum of cannabinoids,

terpenes and phenolics, lower doses are required, and the bell-shaped response curve disappears.

CANNABIS TERMINOLOGY

HEMP
Hemp is a plant that is part of the Cannabis Sativa L. plant species. To be legally classified as hemp, the plant must have levels of less than 0.3% THC. The fibers can be used to make clothing, and the seeds and seed oil are nutritionally dense. Additionally, hemp is a sustainable building material and removes chemicals and heavy metals from the soil, making it an incredibly eco-friendly plant.

HEMP SEED OIL
A nutritionally dense oil extracted from hemp seeds that are high in Vitamin E, Omega 3 and 6 Fatty Acids, and Linoleic Acid and Oleic Acids, but DOES NOT contain any CBD or other cannabinoids.

FECO (Full Extract Cannabis Oil)
FECO refers to the raw extract which is taken from the cannabis plant. The most common methods of extraction are CO2 and ethanol extraction. Other names include RSO, dab, tar, paste, rosin, concentrate, and shatter.

NON-INTOXICATING
This refers to substances that do not cause uninhibited behavior (a high) and do not inhibit normal brain functioning, cognition, and physical control of the body. CBD is non-intoxicating and generally considered safe.

THE BIPHASIC EFFECT
Cannabis compounds have biphasic properties, which means that low and high doses of the same substance can produce opposite effects. Small doses of cannabis tend to stimulate; large doses sedate. “Less is more” is often the case concerning cannabis.

FAQ

Will CBD Oil pass security at airports?
Yes, but it might not pass customs. CBD Oil is legal in South Africa and will not cause any trouble with National flights. With international flights, it depends on the country you are entering. CBD oil is not yet legal in all countries and could cause problems (including fines or even jail time) if you bring it into the country.

Will I fail a drug test if I supplement with CBD Oil?
Full Spectrum, or Broad-spectrum CBD products may contain a trace amount of the cannabinoid THC that is less than 0.3%. Much like the consumption of poppy seeds may lead to a positive drug test for opioids, the consumption of certain CBD products may lead to a positive drug test for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

It’s important to understand that the underlying science behind the conversion of certain cannabinoids to other related cannabinoids when consumed is not yet fully understood. If you are subject to drug testing, we strongly suggest consulting your health care provider before consuming any CBD products because of individual biochemistry, the potential for the conversion of cannabinoids, and the possibility of trace, but legal, amounts of THC inherent in CBD products are all factors to consider.

What is CO2 Extraction
CO2 extraction is a process that uses pressurized carbon dioxide to pull the desired phytochemicals, cannabinoids, terpene oils, and waxes out of the plant material.

The alternative extraction technique is ethanol extraction. The result can oftentimes be residual solvents in the finished product. CO2 extraction while more expensive is the cleanest and most effective extraction technique available.

Can I give CBD to my pet (my dog, cat, etc.)?
Yes. Pets can benefit from CBD for many of the same conditions as humans: pain, seizures, inflammation, and anxiety. CBD is safe to use for pets, but the dosage will likely be much smaller than yours. Dogs have a higher concentration of cannabinoid receptors in their brain. This means they are very sensitive to THC. But a small amount of THC is beneficial for animals.

What are Parabens in cosmetics/lotions?
Parabens are a class of widely used preservatives in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. Parabens are known to disrupt hormone function. Parabens mimic estrogen by binding to estrogen receptors on cells.

Where are your products available for purchase?
Our products are available online at www.cannaco.co.za and in retail locations across the country. Visit the Cannaco Store Locator page on our website for all our retailers’ details.

How long does a Cannaco package take to ship?
We ask that you allow at least 1 day (not including weekends) for order processing. Once the order is processed, a third-party courier is used that usually takes 1-3 business days to deliver depending on geographic location. Please note that if your order is placed between Friday-Sunday, your order will not be delivered until the next business day.

WHAT’S LEGAL
Maximum Daily Dose of 20mg CBD
Maximum 600mg CBD per sales pack
THC limit for CBD Products in SA (ingested):  0.001%
THC limit for CBD Products worldwide (ingested):  0.03%
THC limit for CBD Products (topical) in SA:  0.1%
THC limit for CBD Products (topical) worldwide:  0.3%
THC limit on all CBD/Hemp Imports:  0.001%

CBD products can’t claim to cure or treat any specific condition. They can only advertise broadly about general health enhancement or promise to relieve minor symptoms.

CBD is schedule 0:
– in complementary medicines containing no more than 600mg CBD per sales pack, providing a maximum daily dose of 20mg of CBD, and making general health enhancement, health maintenance or relief of minor symptoms (low-risk) claims; or

– in processed products made from cannabis raw plant material intended for ingestion containing 0.0075% or less of CBD, where only the naturally occurring quantity of cannabinoids found in the source material is contained in the product.

THC is schedule 0:
– in raw plant material and processed products manufactured from such material, intended for industrial purposes and not for human or animal ingestion, containing 0.2% or less of THC;

– in processed products made from cannabis containing 0.001% or less of THC; or

– raw plant material cultivated, processed, and consumed by an adult, in private, for personal consumption.

The information provided is for general information purposes only and should not be relied upon or used as the sole basis for making decisions without consulting a qualified health care professional.

Always consult your physician when changing any recommended treatments or medication. They can help you decide whether it’s safe to consume CBD based on each person’s medical history and current prescriptions.

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