HOW CBD WORKS
Cannabidiol (CBD) and Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are only two of 80+ phytochemical compounds (“phyto” means “plant”) in the Cannabis plant called Cannabinoids. Both are unique compounds with diffrerent properties. Cannabinoids work by imitating compounds our bodies naturally produce, called endocannabinoids (“endo” means “endogenous”), which activate to maintain internal balance and health. Cannabinoids bind to receptor sites in the brain and body – this system of receptors is referred to as the Endocannabinoid System.
Phytocannabinoids – “phyto” means “plant” – natural chemical compounds secreted by cannabis flowers – CBD, THC etc.
Endocannabinoids – “endo” means “endogenous” – produced by the human body – 2-AG and AEA
Endocannabinoids are cannabis like molecules naturally produced in the human body that regulates proper functioning of the immune system and nervous system. Cannabinoids contained in cannabis, referred to as phytocannabinoids, simply imitate endocannabinoids. Cannabinoids fit perfectly into specialized receptors (CB1 and CB2) found throughout the nervous and immune systems, serving to enhance, or improve upon, the body’s own ability to maintain homeostasis (balance) and health.
Phytocannabinoids has 2 categories, ACIDIC and NEUTRAL.
Acidic: The plant is only able to synthesise (produce) the phytocannabinoids directly in their non-psychoactive forms (Acidic). Therefore, the main phytocannabinoids present in fresh plant material are Δ9-THCA, CBDA, CBGA y CBCA.
Neutral: When the plant is smoked or cooked every acidic cannabinoid suffers decarboxylation (transformation) to its neutral form due to the influence of heat, light or drying. – Δ9-THC, CBD, CBG y CBC
// CBD · Cannabidiol
A type of cannabinoid, and a non-intoxicating phytochemical compound extracted from the Cannabis Sativa plant. CBD is reported to produce a large amount of pharmacological, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Among the many therapeutic properties of CBD, the main ones are: a sense of calm and focus, relief from everyday stresses and inflammation.
// THC · Tetrahydrocannabinol
The primary psychoactive cannabinoid in Cannabis that stimulates chemical receptors in the brain responsible for mood, appetite, memory, pain sensations, and psychoactive perception. THC is the cannabinoid responsible for the high. Potentially beneficial for pain relief, nausea and appetite stimulation.
Trichomes are the shiny, sticky, mushroom-shaped, clear or white looking crystals that covers the leaves and buds producing Phytocannabinoids and Terpenes.
Terpenes are responsible for creating the unique aroma of fruits, vegetables, flowers and herbs. Plants develop terpenes to ward off herbivores that might eat them and to attract helpful predators and pollinators.
Terpenes also provide therapeutic properties like cannabinoids and can alter the state of their surroundings to modify how much of each cannabinoid is absorbed. Terpenes and Cannabinoids work together in harmony to result in an Entourage Effect which enhances their individual therapeutic properties. There are over 100 different Terpenes currently identified in different strains of cannabis.
// BIOFLAVONOIDS (“Vitamin P”.)
Bioflavonoids (also called flavonoids) are the natural pigments that give fruits and vegetables, and flowers their colour.
Terpenes = Smell
Bioflavonoids = Colour
// BROAD SPECTRUM
Broad Spectrum CBD products contain synergistic Bioflavonoids, Cannabinoids, Terpenoids, Phyto-Actives, Amino Acids, Omega-3, -6 and -9’s and other compounds of the original plant, but 0% THC.
// FULL SPECTRUM
Full Spectrum refers to an extract created from the entire plant, without any filtering of THC. The full range of bioflavonoids, cannabinoids, terpenes, and other compounds remain intact, as well as THC.
// CBD ISOLATE
CBD Isolate is the CBD molecule separated from the rest of the compounds it normally occurs with. CBD Isolate usually appears as a crystalline white powder.
Marijuana plants tend to be shorter plants and are grown for their flowers. The THC content is higher than 0.3% and is mainly used recreationally but are also cultivated for medicinal purposes.
Hemp is a plant that is part of the Cannabis Sativa plant species. To be classified as hemp, the plant must have less than 0.3% THC. The seeds can be used for food; its stalks can be used for paper, clothing, rope and building materials; and its leaves, flowers and roots can be used for medicinal purposes.
// HEMP SEED OIL
A nutritionally dense oil extracted from hemp seeds that is high in Vitamin E, Omega 3 and 6 Fatty Acids, and Linoleic
Acid and Oleic Acids, but DOES NOT contain any CBD or other cannabinoids.
Cannabis Sativa is the name of the plant species to which both marijuana and hemp belong. Many people are now
defaulting to calling marijuana “cannabis” but in fact cannabis is a broad term for the whole plant species.
// FECO (Full Extract Cannabis Oil)
FECO refers to the raw extract which is taken from the cannabis plant for later processing into CBD oil or CBD products. The most common methods of extraction are CO2 and ethanol extraction. Other names include: RSO, dab,
tar, paste, rosin, concentrate and shatter.
// THE ENTOURAGE EFFECT
Each cannabinoid and terpene has its own set of therapeutic benefits. However, when multiple cannabinoids, terpenes and other whole plant compounds are consumed, they enhance each other’s effects. In this way, cannabinoids are more effective together than they are alone.
Let’s use the two most popular cannabinoids—THC and CBD—as an example. A patient may be prescribed a high-THC medication to help their nausea and increase appetite. However, they would also want some CBD to be present because it helps reduce THC’s side effects, such as paranoia.
THC’s Entourage // THC, the psychoactive compound in cannabis is potentially beneficial for pain, nausea and muscle spasms, but can increase anxiety and affect memory.
Entourage – When scientists use full spectrum products with higher CBD content, the positive effects are stronger and the negative side effects decrease or even reverse. The anxiety induced by THC is reduced by CBD and other cannabinoids.
CBD’s Entourage // CBD has anti-inflammatory, pain-relieving and anti-anxiety properties, but CBD isolate also comes with its downsides: CBD isolate relieves anxiety at moderate doses but might trigger anxiety-inducing neurotransmitters at high doses and The bell-shaped response curve – Its effectiveness peaks at a medium dose but tapers off for higher doses AND lower doses.
Entourage – When CBD is combined with a full-spectrum or broad-spectrum (meaning there’s no THC), lower doses are required, and the bell-shaped response curve disappears.
// THE ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM
The Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is a collection of cell receptors and molecules located throughout the entire body responsible for maintaining homeostasis (balance) over all other endogenous systems (digestive, endocrine, neural, lymphatic, immune, etc.) and bring them back to a neutral state whether they were over-stimulated or under-stimulated. An optimally functioning ECS creates endocannabinoids based on demand and needs of the body to ensure harmony and balance in cells, tissues, and organs – known as homeostasis.
Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency (CECD)
Due to lack of nutrition, stress, age, etc. the body produces fewer endocannabinoids resulting in ECS dysfunction which can contribute to the development of certain health complications and diseases.
Overactive Immune System // Asthma, allergies, dermatitis, eczema, autoimmune disorders – multiple sclerosis, autoimmune thyroid disease, type 1 diabetes, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic vasculitis or digestive issues like inflammatory bowel disease.
Underactive Immune System // Makes people vulnerable to bacteria and infections.
There are two compounds that can bind to the cannabinoid receptors: Endocannabinoids and Phytocannabinoids. Endocannabinoids are cannabis-like molecules naturally produced in the human body. Cannabinoids contained in cannabis referred to as phytocannabinoids, simply imitate endocannabinoids and interact with the body the same way as the endocannabinoids it naturally produces. It’s the phytocannabinoids found in Cannabis that makes up typical formulas (CBD, THC, CBN, etc.)
The 3 parts of The Endocannabinoid System:
• CB1 and CB2 Receptors
• Endocannabinoids and Phytocannabinoids
• Metabolic Enzymes
The Endocannabinoid System is a self-regulating system that uses metabolic enzymes (amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL)) to destroy cannabinoids once they are used and are no longer useful to the body. Unlike the hormonal system, which keeps the chemicals (hormones) around longer than needed, the ECS ensures the interaction between the receptors and cannabinoids only happens when needed.
Cannabinoids fit perfectly into the cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), serving to improve and enhance the body’s own ability to maintain homeostasis (balance) and health.
CB1 Receptors – The cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors are mostly found on nerve cells in the brain, spinal cord, and in other organs.
– THC mostly binds to the CB1 Receptors
CB2 Receptors – The cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptors are found in our reproductive organs, immune system, and peripheral nervous system.
– CBD mostly binds to the CB2 Receptors
CB1 Receptors Target:
• Response to anxiety, stress, emotion, fear, and pain.
• Motor activity and coordination
• Learning & Memory system
• Decision making
• Emotional behavior
• Body temperature
• Neuroendocrine function
• Pain perception
• Immune cells
• Sleeping patterns
CB2 Receptors Target:
• Bones & eyes
• Energy balance
• Gut and digestion
• Respiratory tract
• Skeletal muscle
• Kidneys, liver & Pancreas
• Reproductive System
• Cardiovascular function
• Central nervous system
• Immune system responses
• Skin and nerve function
• Muscle formation
• Adipose tissue (fat)
// THE BIPHASIC EFFECT
Cannabis compounds have biphasic properties, which means that low and high doses of the same substance can produce opposite effects. Small doses of cannabis tend to stimulate; large doses sedate. “Less is more” is often the case with respect to cannabis.
// THE PLANT – CANNABIS (Sativa vs Indica)
Leaves from the plant are symmetrical and are generally made up of five or seven leaflets. The flowering tops and upper leaves are covered in a sticky resin and the plant’s main active chemical is THC (delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol). The commonly recognizable fan leaves help distinguish between indica and sativa marijuana plants. Darker, wide leaves for Indica and lighter green, lean slender fingers for Sativa is the norm.
// WHAT’S LEGAL
CBD Legal Daily Intake: 20mg CBD
Legal THC limit on CBD Product (ingested): 0.001%
Legal THC limit on CBD Product (topical): 0.1%
Legal THC limit on all CBD/Hemp Imports: 0.001%
Regulation excluded CBD from scheduling altogether for a year, making it available on the shelf from anyone who cares to sell it, within limits.
// POSSIBLE SIDE EFFECTS & PRECAUTIONS
Research has concluded that CBD is perfectly safe with no known side effects, though some users have reported drowsiness, low blood pressure, lightheadedness, and dry mouth.
Always consult your physician when changing any recommended treatments or medication. They can help you decide whether it’s safe to consume CBD based on each person’s medical history and current prescriptions.