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CBD101

CANNABINOIDS

Cannabidiol (CBD) and Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are only two of the 113+ phytochemical molecules in the Cannabis Sativa plant called Cannabinoids. Both are unique molecules with different properties. The body already produces its own cannabinoids, called endocannabinoids that interact with the (ECS) Endocannabinoid System. Phytocannabinoids (CBD and THC), consumed from another source like cannabis, imitate endocannabinoids and fit perfectly into receptors (CB1 and CB2) found throughout the nervous and immune systems, serving to enhance, or improve upon, the body’s own ability to maintain homeostasis (balance) and health. Cannabinoids bind to receptor sites in the brain and body – this system of receptors is referred to as the Endocannabinoid System.


•  Phytocannabinoids – “phyto” means “plant” – natural chemical compounds secreted by cannabis flowers – CBD, THC, etc.

•  Endocannabinoids – “endo” means “endogenous” – produced by the human body.
Phytocannabinoids have 2 categories, acidic and neutral.

Acidic: The plant is only able to synthesise (produce) the phytocannabinoids directly in their non-psychoactive forms (Acidic). Therefore, the main phytocannabinoids present in fresh plant material are Δ9-THCA, CBDA, CBGA y CBCA.

Neutral: When the plant is smoked or cooked every acidic cannabinoid suffers decarboxylation (transformation) to its neutral form due to the influence of heat, light, or drying. – Δ9-THC, CBD, CBG y CBC

Other Cannabinoids:
• Cannabigerol (CBG) = appetite stimulant, inflammation, depression, anxiety, anti-fungal
• Cannabichromine (CBC) = inflammation, depression, anxiety, anti-pathogenic
• Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) = appetite suppression, inflammation, anticonvulsant
• Cannabidivarin (CBDV) = anticonvulsant
• Cannabinol (CBN) = sedative, cancer cell growth suppressant

 

//  THE ENTOURAGE EFFECT

Each cannabinoid has its own set of therapeutic benefits. However, when multiple cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids found in cannabis are taken together, as opposed to being isolated, they enhance each other’s properties. In this way, cannabinoids are more effective together than they are alone.

Let’s use the two most popular cannabinoids—THC and CBD—as an example. A patient may be prescribed a high-THC medication to help their nausea and increase appetite. However, they would also want some CBD to be present because it helps reduce THC’s side effects, such as paranoia.

THC’s Entourage

THC, the psychoactive compound in cannabis is potentially beneficial for pain, nausea, and muscle spasms, but comes with some downsides: in high dosages, it can increase anxiety, affect memory, and might even lead to atrophy in the brain’s hippocampus.

Entourage – When scientists use whole-plant products with higher CBD content, the positive effects are stronger and the negative side effects decrease or even reverse. Full-spectrum extracts are more effective than THC alone, and the anxiety induced by THC is reduced by CBD and other cannabinoids.

CBD’s Entourage

CBD has anti-inflammatory, pain-relieving, and anti-anxiety properties, but CBD isolate also comes with its downsides: CBD isolate relieves anxiety at moderate doses but causes anxiety at high doses, and its effectiveness peaks at a medium dose but tapers off for higher doses AND lower doses.

Entourage – When CBD is combined with a full-spectrum or broad-spectrum product, lower doses are required and the product is more effective.

//  THE BIPHASIC EFFECT

Cannabis compounds have biphasic properties, which means that low and high doses can produce opposite effects. Small doses of cannabis tend to stimulate; large doses sedate. “Less is more” is often the case concerning cannabis.

//  THE ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM (ECS) 

     “endo“ means “originating within the body”

The Endocannabinoid System is a self-regulating system of receptors that are located throughout the entire body. Cannabinoids like CBD deliver their effects by binding to receptors CB1 and CB2 in the brain and body. While they’re densest throughout the central nervous system, these receptors can be found in virtually every part of the body. This network of receptors is called your endocannabinoid system (ECS). 

Our ECS is responsible for maintaining homeostasis (balance) over all other endogenous systems (digestive, endocrine, neural, lymphatic, immune, etc.) and bringing  them back to a neutral state whether they were over-stimulated or under-stimulated. The Endocannabinoid System plays a crucial role in regulating a broad range of physiological processes that affect our everyday experience – our mood, memory, sleep, energy level, intestinal fortitude, immune activity, blood pressure, bone density, glucose metabolism, how we experience pain, stress, hunger, and more

CB1 Receptors Target:

• Response to anxiety, stress, emotion, fear, and pain. 

• Motor activity and coordination

• Thinking

• Appetite

• Learning & memory system

• Decision making

• Emotional behavior

• Body temperature

• Neuroendocrine function

• Language

• Pain perception

• Immune cells

• Sleeping patterns

 

CB2 Receptors Target:

• Bones & eyes

• Energy balance

• Metabolism

• Gut and digestion

• Inflammation

• Respiratory tract

• Skeletal muscle

• Kidneys, liver & pancreas

• Reproductive system

• Cardiovascular function

• Central nervous system

• Immune system responses

• Skin and nerve function

• Muscle formation

• Adipose tissue (fat)

An optimally functioning ECS creates endocannabinoids based on demand and needs of the body to ensure harmony and balance in cells, tissues, and organs – known as homeostasis. Disease are the consequences of a chronically deficient or overactive endocannabinoid system that doesn’t function properly.

The Endocannabinoid System is located on nearly every cell in the body – skin, immune cells, bone, fat tissue, liver, pancreas, skeletal muscle, heart, blood vessels, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract. 

The 3 parts of The Endocannabinoid System:

CB1 and CB2 Receptors

Endocannabinoids and Phytocannabinoids

Metabolic Enzymes

The Endocannabinoid System is a self-regulating system that uses metabolic enzymes (amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL)) to destroy cannabinoids once they are used and are no longer useful to the body. Unlike the hormonal system, which keeps the chemicals (hormones) around longer than needed, the ECS ensures the interaction between the receptors and cannabinoids only happens when needed.

Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency (CECD) – Due to lack of nutrition, stress, age, etc. the body produces less endocannabinoids resulting in low endocannabinoid levels or ECS dysfunction which can contribute to the development of certain conditions – migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and more. None of these conditions have a clear underlying cause. They’re also often resistant to treatment and sometimes occur alongside each other.

//  RECEPTORS

Cannabinoids binds to receptors called CB1 and CB2. THC binds to CB1 receptors whereas CBD is mainly affiliated with CB2 receptors but in high concentrations competes with THC at the CB1 receptor sites. This means that when THC and CBD are used together, in a ratio of more CBD to THC, this feature of CBD enables you to benefit from THC while reducing its psychotic effects. These two cannabinoids may be recognized as the most effective cannabinoids in stimulating our endocannabinoid system, but this is not the case. Not only do the other cannabinoids compete/synergise with THC and CBD, they also interact directly and/or indirectly with CB1 and/or CB2 receptors as well as many other metabolic processes.

CB-1 receptors – CB1 receptors are found mainly in the brain, kidneys, liver, lungs, digestive tract, and even the eyes, as well as in the central and peripheral nervous systems which is why THC stimulates appetite, overpowers nausea, interrupts the spread of pain signals and can be used to disturb the growth of cancer cells. 

The placement of CB1 receptors is also why overdoses on cannabis are impossible – because these receptors are not present in the basal regions of the brain that are responsible for vital functions, such as heart and respiratory function, overdoses due solely to cannabis use simply do not occur.

CB-2 receptors – CB2 receptors are found in the peripheral nervous system, in particular tissues associated with the immune system, including the tonsils, thymus, spleen, and bone marrow, which helps to moderate inflammation and our immune response to pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and worms), the brain and in the gastrointestinal system, thereby playing a huge role in immunity, cell growth, neuro-regeneration and general cell homeostasis.  CBD products are potentially beneficial for conditions due to overactive immune system (i.e. arthritis, asthma, allergies, autoimmune disorders or digestive issues like inflammatory bowel disease) through binding to the CB2 receptors. 

Supplementing with CBD Oil does not only support the body where a deficiency causes an underactive immune system. It also helps the endocannabinoid system bring a balance from an overactive immune system. 

Overactive Immune System 

asthma, allergies, hives, dermatitis, eczema, autoimmune disorders – multiple sclerosis, autoimmune thyroid disease, type 1 diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic vasculitis or digestive issues like inflammatory bowel disease.

Underactive Immune System

Makes people vulnerable to bacteria and infections.

//  TRICHOMES

Trichomes are the shiny, sticky, mushroom-shaped clear or white looking crystals that covers the leaves and buds that  synthesises (produces) Phytocannabinoids and Terpenes. 

Even though trichomes can be found in any male and female plant, its highest phytocannabinoid concentration can be found in the female plant. Most of the trichomes appears during the flowering period and forms the thickest cover in pistilated (female) flowers’ bracts and in the small leaves that go with flowers called the cola, which refers to the plant’s “bud site” where tight female flowers bloom. Colas form at all budding sites throughout the plant, but the larger, firmer colas tend to form toward the top of the plant with the main cola, sometimes called the apical bud, forming at the very top of the plant.

//  TERPENES

What are Terpenes
Terpenes/terpenoids otherwise referred to as essential oils, are powerful Phyto molecules produced by plants as components of odors, hormones, steroids, pigments, vitamins, and resins. Terpenes are responsible for creating the unique aroma of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and herbs. Plants develop terpenes to ward off herbivores that might eat them and to attract helpful predators and pollinators.
Terpenes are highly pharmacological versatile molecules that can interact with cell membranes, neuronal/muscle ion channels, neurotransmitter receptors (such as cannabinoid receptors), G-protein coupled receptors and enzymes. Terpenes also provide therapeutic benefits like cannabinoids and can alter the state of their surroundings to modify how much of each cannabinoid is absorbed. Terpenes and Cannabinoids work together in harmony to result in an Entourage Effect which enhances their individual therapeutic properties.
Formed from the same shiny, resinous trichomes as cannabinoids, cannabis terpenes also bind to the same endocannabinoid receptors located throughout the brain and body. For example, depending upon which receptors they react with, different terpenes may help to induce sleep and relax muscles while others reduce stress and elevate mood, or reduce inflammation and increase energy.

What are Bioflavonoids? (“Vitamin P”.)
Bioflavonoids (also called flavonoids) are the natural pigments that give fruits and vegetables and flowers their color.

Terpenes = Smell
Bioflavonoids = Colour

//  THE PLANT – CANNABIS

Leaves from the plant are symmetrical and are generally made up of five or seven leaflets. The commonly recognizable fan leaves help to distinguish between Indica and Sativa marijuana plants. Darker, wide leaves for Indica and lighter green, lean slender fingers for Sativa is the norm. The various strains of cannabis possess particular properties resulting in different effects. The cannabis plant happens to be one of the most pharmacologically active plants on the planet, containing over 400 active chemicals. The unique, active components of cannabis are called cannabinoids, which are found alongside active chemicals called terpenoids, known for their aromatic qualities, and flavonoids which are antioxidants.

//  WHAT’S LEGAL

• CBD Legal Daily Intake: 20mg CBD
• Legal THC limit on CBD Products (ingested): 0.001%
• Legal THC limit on CBD Products (topical): 0.1%
• Legal THC limit on all CBD/Hemp Imports: 0.001%
• Regulation excluded CBD from scheduling altogether, making it available to sell by anyone, within limits.
• To qualify for the exemption, preparations must either contain a maximum daily dose of 20 milligrams of CBD or if made from raw cannabis products must contain only a tiny fraction of CBD (0.0075%) and a maximum of 0.001% tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive in marijuana.

//  CANNA • TERMS

Broad-Spectrum
Broad Spectrum CBD products contain synergistic Bioflavonoids, Cannabinoids, Terpenoids, Phyto-Actives, Amino Acids, Omega-3, -6, and -9’s, and other compounds of the original plant, but 0% THC.

Full Spectrum
Full Spectrum refers to an extract created from the entire plant, without any filtering of THC. The full range of bioflavonoids, cannabinoids, terpenes, and other compounds remain intact, as well as THC.

CBD Isolate
CBD Isolate is the CBD molecule separated from the rest of the compounds it normally occurs with. CBD Isolate usually appears as a crystalline white powder.

Marijuana
Marijuana plants tend to be shorter plants and are grown for their flowers. The THC content is higher than 0.3% and is mainly used recreationally but is also cultivated for medicinal purposes.

Hemp
Hemp is a plant that is part of the Cannabis Sativa plant species. To be classified as hemp, the plant must have less than 0.3% THC. The seeds can be used for food; the stalks can be used for paper, clothing, rope, and building materials; and its leaves, flowers, and roots can be used for medicinal purposes.

Hemp Seed Oil
A nutritionally dense oil extracted from hemp seeds that are high in Vitamin E, Omega 3 and 6 Fatty Acids, and Linoleic Acid and Oleic Acids, but does not contain any CBD or other cannabinoids.

Cannabis
Cannabis Sativa is the name of the plant species to which both marijuana and hemp belong. Many people are now defaulting to calling marijuana “cannabis” but in fact, cannabis is a broad term for the whole plant species.

FECO (Full Extract Cannabis Oil)
FECO refers to the raw extract which is taken from the cannabis plant for later processing into CBD oil or CBD products. The most common methods of extraction are CO2 and ethanol extraction. Other names include RSO, dab, tar, paste, rosin, concentrate and shatter.

Concentrates
Concentrates are products made from the plant that have been processed to keep only the most desirable plant compounds (primarily the cannabinoids and terpenes). Ounce for ounce, cannabis concentrates have a greater proportion of cannabinoids and terpenes when compared to natural cannabis flowers.

Concentrates // Hash
Also known as hashish, it’s made by eliminating plant material and collecting the trichomes from the flower tops of female plants. The THC content varies from 20% to 60%. Traditionally, hash has been consumed orally, either as a solid or infused into a beverage. Some hashish can be melted by vaporizing on a hot surface. This is known as “dabbing.”

Concentrates // Rosin
Rosin refers to an extraction process that utilizes a combination of heat and pressure to squeeze resinous sap from the original material. Cannabis is incredibly versatile in that it can either be used with flowers or clean up hash into full-melt hash oil. This process does not use solvents unlike “shatter.”

Concentrates // Shatter
“Shatter” is usually made by using butane as the solvent, and its more technical name is Butane Hash Oil, or BHO, for short. Another popular type of solvent extract is CO2 oil, used in most vape pen cartridges. In the case of cannabis concentrates, other types of solvents, like alcohol or propane can be used to extract cannabinoids.

Concentrates // Distillate
It’s the purest cannabis concentrate available. Distilled cannabis has the highest THC content of any available concentrate. Not only do distillates’ high THC content level require small doses to experience its effects, their nose-discreet characteristics, as in being odorless, make them ideal to consume publicly.

//  FAQ

// What is CBD?
CBD, short for Cannabidiol is a non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid, meaning it does not cause a high, which produces a large amount of pharmacological, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. Among the many health effects of CBD, the main ones are a sense of calm and focus, relief from everyday stresses and inflammation.

// What is THC?
THC, short for Tetrahydrocannabinol is the primary psychoactive cannabinoid in Cannabis that stimulates chemical receptors in the brain responsible for mood, appetite, memory, pain sensations, and psychoactive perception. THC is the cannabinoid responsible for the high. Potentially beneficial for pain relief, nausea, and appetite stimulation. Plants use THC to fend off natural predators like parasites, bacteria, and viruses.

Effects of THC overdose: altered senses (for example, seeing brighter colours), altered sense of time, changes in mood, impaired body movement, difficulty with thinking and problem-solving, impaired memory, hallucinations (when taken in high doses), delusions (when taken in high doses), psychosis (risk is highest with regular use of high potency marijuana) On average, the effects last about two hours and kick in 10 to 30 minutes after ingestion.

// What are Bioflavonoids? (“vitamin P”.)
Bioflavonoids (also called flavonoids) are the natural pigments that give fruits and vegetables and flowers their colour.

// What are Terpenes?
Terpenes are organic compounds responsible for creating the unique aroma of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and herbs. Plants develop terpenes to ward off herbivores that might eat them and to attract helpful predators and pollinators. Terpenes also provide therapeutic benefits like cannabinoids and can modify how much of each cannabinoid is absorbed. When terpenes work together with cannabinoids in a process known as the entourage effect, the therapeutic potentials increase dramatically.

Terpenes = Smell
Bioflavonoids = Colour

// What is The Entourage Effect?
Each cannabinoid has its own set of therapeutic benefits. However, when multiple cannabinoids are consumed, they enhance each other’s effects. In this way, cannabinoids are more effective together than they are alone.

// Are there any side effects of using CBD?
Research has concluded that CBD is perfectly safe with no known side effects, though some users have reported drowsiness, low blood pressure, light headedness, and dry mouth.

// Can you get high from CBD?
No. CBD is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid so it will not get you high in the way that marijuana (THC) gets you high. However, CBD can influence your mental state. Many users of CBD report feeling a very subtle feeling of relaxation, alertness, or mental clarity from taking CBD. THC is the psychoactive cannabinoid that makes you high. While many CBD oils, particularly full-spectrum products, contain trace amounts of THC, it is not enough to make you high.

// Is CBD addictive?
While nearly anything in the world can be addictive, no CBD is not known to be an addictive drug. In fact, CBD has shown strong potential to be a useful tool to help people break addictions to harmful substances.

// Can there be withdrawals from CBD oil?
As far as the research goes, there is no evidence of CBD withdrawal symptoms, or reported issues with tolerance, addiction, or subsequent withdrawals from CBD.

// Does CBD interact with other medications?
CBD is metabolized by a group of enzymes called the CYP450, also responsible for metabolizing many commonly used drugs. CBD can temporarily inhibit the activity of the CYP450 enzymes. Compounds in grapefruit inhibit the same enzyme group, which is why physicians advise patients not to eat grapefruit shortly before or after taking medication. While CBD-drug interactions are more likely with high doses of CBD and CBD isolates, precaution must be taken when using CBD alongside life-preserving medications for serious conditions (i.e., epilepsy medications).

Always consult your physician when changing any recommended treatments or medication. They can help you decide whether it’s safe to consume CBD based on each person’s medical history and current prescriptions.

// What are the effects of CBD?
CBD has shown to have the following effects: non-psychoactive (does not cause a high), alerting in low to moderate doses and sedating in high doses. According to research, CBD may help to reduce pain, reduces muscle spasms, anti-inflammatory, stops nausea/vomiting, reduces anxiety/depression, counters psychotic thoughts, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, neuroprotectant, and anti-tumour.

We encourage you to do your own research, consult with doctors, and use PubMed.gov as a resource as newly published research is coming out in real-time. Anecdotal evidence and case reports are pushing the research, but more research is needed to provide structure/function claims associated with taking CBD oil.

If you have a medical condition, or if you are pregnant or nursing, consult with a health care professional before consuming CBD.

// Can you overdose on CBD?
CBD has been shown to be safe to use in high doses. CBD will not cause a fatal overdose. However, it is possible to take too much CBD. A consequence of taking too much CBD is the increased chance of negative side effects like lethargy or drowsiness and can also cause anxiety.

// How do I take CBD?
CBD can be consumed in a myriad of ways: tinctures/oil, vaping, capsules, edibles, sublingual (administered under the tongue), or topicals.

// What is a CBD tincture?
A CBD tincture is another term for CBD oil. In the cannabis industry, the word “tincture” and “oil” are used interchangeably. A CBD tincture or CBD oil is a liquid concentrate that contains CBD.

// How do you take a CBD tincture?
CBD tinctures are taken by placing the drops under the tongue where it can be absorbed sublingually – through the mucous membrane in the mouth.

// How long do you keep CBD tincture under your tongue?
Try to keep the CBD tincture under your tongue for 30 – 60 seconds. The longer you can hold, usually the better it will absorb.

// Is CBD a Drug or a Supplement?
Drugs are considered unsafe until proven safe, whereas dietary supplements are considered safe until proven otherwise. Because of this, drugs have to be tested in clinical trials to verify their safety and efficacy before they can be used, whereas supplements do not.

// How is CBD Different from Cannabis?
CBD is just one cannabinoid, whereas whole cannabis contains more than 113 cannabinoids along with other plant-derived substances, and CBD is usually taken in the form of oil, whereas cannabis is typically smoked.

// What is MCT Oil?
Medium-Chain Triglyceride (80% fatty acids) base is the perfect pathway to connect cannabinoids to every cell in the human body, as every cell consists of fatty acids, the great importance of fatty acids resides in the fact that they are the main constituents of the human cell. The type of fatty acid, saturated or unsaturated, long-chained or short-chained can influence the physiology of the cell. CBD oil offers a variety of benefits through a clear pathway to each cell.

// Will CBD Oil pass security at airports?
Yes, but it might not pass customs. CBD Oil is legal in South-Africa and will not cause any trouble with National flights. With international flights, it depends on the country you are entering. CBD oil is not yet legal in all countries and could cause problems (including fines or even jail time) if you bring it into the country.

// Will I fail a drug test if I supplement with CBD Oil?
Full Spectrum, or Broad-spectrum CBD products may contain a trace amount of the cannabinoid THC, less than 0.3%. Much like the consumption of poppy seeds may lead to a positive drug test for opioids, the consumption of certain CBD products may lead to a positive drug test for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). While CBD products will not cause any feelings of intoxication (get you “high”) these products are not completely THC free.

The legal limit of THC in hemp is no more than 0.3%. It’s important to understand that the underlying science behind the conversion of certain cannabinoids to other related cannabinoids when consumed is not yet fully understood. If you are subject to drug testing, we strongly suggest consulting your health care provider before consuming any CBD products because of individual biochemistry, the potential for the conversion of cannabinoids, and the possibility of trace, but legal, amounts of THC inherent in hemp products are all factors to consider.

// Is a CBD-dominant product with very little THC better than a product with a fifty-fifty CBD-THC mix?
A CBD-dominant product with little THC is not necessarily a superior supplement option compared to a balanced CBD-rich supplement with an equal amount of CBD and THC. A CBD-dominant product might be optimal for anxiety and seizure disorders, but patients with pain syndromes and neurodegenerative disorders may benefit from a substantial amount of THC. CBD and THC act synergistically to potentiate their respective therapeutic attributes. Different ratios of CBD and THC are more suitable for different conditions and different individuals.

// Can I give CBD to my pet (my dog, cat, etc.)?
Yes. Pets can benefit from CBD for many of the same conditions as humans: pain, seizures, inflammation, and anxiety. CBD is safe to use for pets, but their dosage will likely be much smaller than yours. Dogs have a higher concentration of cannabinoid receptors in their brain. This means they are very sensitive to THC. But a small amount of THC, like the amount in a full spectrum CBD hemp oil, is beneficial for animals. We recommend you speak with a veterinarian (holistic veterinarian) before you start giving your pet CBD.

// What are Parabens in salve/lotions?
Parabens are a class of widely used preservatives in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. Parabens are known to disrupt hormone function. Parabens mimic estrogen by binding to estrogen receptors on cells.

// What are CBD edibles?
CBD edibles are food products infused with CBD. Common CBD edibles products are chocolates & gummy bears. CBD edibles are an oral route of administration of CBD.

// How long does it take for CBD to take effect?
The time it takes for CBD to take effect will depend on the route of administration. The fastest effect will be felt from smoking or vaporization (onset of effects in minutes). Topical administration of CBD will be felt quickly as well. The next fastest effect will be felt from a sublingual dosage (onset of effects in 15 – 60 minutes). The slowest effect (but the longest lasting) will be felt from oral ingestion (onset felt in 90 minutes).

// Where does CBD come from?
CBD is produced by both marijuana and hemp plants. CBD is mostly produced in the resinous trichomes of cannabis flowers. Smaller concentrations of CBD can be found on the stalk and leaves of cannabis plants.

// What is the difference between isolate and full-spectrum CBD?
CBD isolate is CBD only. Full-spectrum CBD contains a whole array of cannabinoids, including trace amounts of THC. It’s distilled in such a way that other cannabinoids are present to create the “entourage effect” which is essentially the most effective form of CBD you can get.

// What Is a Cannabis Strain?
A strain is a genetic variant of cannabis. Most cannabis strains can be classified as either Cannabis Sativa or Cannabis Indica – two variations of the same basic species of cannabis. These two classes of strains tend to have very different effects on the consumer as further detailed below. Today we regularly see the influence of hybrid genetics that combine both Indica and Sativa varieties.

Indica:
“Indica” has come to describe stout, broad-leaf plants, thought to deliver sedating effects. It has a shorter flowering cycle and is better suited to growing in cooler climates with a shorter season.

• Plants tend to be short and stocky
• Leaves are broad and chunky
• Geographical regions – mountainous regions of Asia and the Middle East
• Efficacy – promote relaxation and general calming
• Beneficial for pain relief, anxiety and sleep disorders

Hybrid:
Hybrid refers to plants that possess the genetics of both Sativa and Indica strains. Its characteristics can vary depending on the mix of genetic features.

Sativa:
“Sativa” refers to tall, narrow-leaf varieties of cannabis, thought to induce energizing effects. It has a longer flowering cycle and is better suited to growing in warmer climates with a longer season.

• Plants tend to be tall and lanky
• Leaves are thin and pointy
• Geographical regions – more equatorial regions around the world
• Efficacy – powerful uplifting/energizing effect
• Promotes focus and productivity

// What Is Nano CBD?
Nanotechnology is a scientific process that breaks cannabinoids into very small particles called nano emulsification. Those extremely small particles should be less than 0.0000001 meters — i.e. 100 nanometres.

• Regular CBD Crystal – 4.44 micrometres (4440 Nanometres in diameter)
• Nano CBD – Less than 50 nanometres (nano-emulsified CBD shrinks this molecule down to 1-10 nanometres)

When CBD is broken down into nanoparticles, it changes the reactive effects, making them more lipophilic and water based. Meaning it is more easily absorbed by the body, Endocannabinoid system, and therefore more effective for your symptoms.